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Begonia toxic to cats

Begonia toxic to cats



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Begonia toxic to cats is a plant which contains oxyanion toxins. The oxyanion toxins found in Boletus species are also present in a number of other mushroom species including species in the Boletus, Cantharellus and Suillus groups, as well as species in the genus Russula. The Boletus toxins are similar to but not identical with the toxins found in the blue-ringed puffer fish (Torpedo marmorata). In humans, the lethal dose is in the range of 5 to 50 mg of toxin per kilogram of body weight, which corresponds to 1 to 10 milligrams of toxin per kilogram of brain weight. (Molinski (1992), supra).

Btulosis toxica, or bulgariosis, occurs in sheep, goats, cattle, pigs, horses, and dogs, and has a fatality rate of about 50%. The disease has a mortality rate of up to 100% in animals at higher doses of toxin (Schneider (1983), supra). B. gordana toxin has been shown to be lethal at a dose of 40 μg/kg in dogs, and 1.0 μg/kg in cats (Frykman, J. B. L. and H. N. S. Schantz (1986), Toxicon, 24:1485–1489). Boletus gordana also has the potency to kill guinea pigs at a concentration of 0.1 μmole/ml in vitro (Weber et al. (1986), supra), and to kill a laboratory mouse at a dose of 1 μg/kg. (See Schneider (1983), supra).

Boletus cyanoxantha, a mushroom species in the Boletus group, contains a toxin having a toxicity in the same range as the toxin from B. gordana. Boletus cyanoxantha can cause sickness in cattle at levels similar to those caused by a B. gordana mushroom. Boletus cyanoxantha is distinguished from Boletus gordana in that the cap of the Boletus cyanoxantha mushroom grows to a length of 5 to 8 inches. Boletus cyanoxantha mushrooms have an olive green to greenish or reddish coloration with reddish brown fibrils. See also Schneider (1983), supra, who discloses Boletus cyanoxantha as a species within the Boletus section. Boletus cyanoxantha also has been isolated from horse dung. (See Weber et al. (1986), supra.)

Thus, an agent which can protect against animal poisoning, particularly mushroom poisoning, is desirable. Further, an agent which protects against human poisoning, particularly mushroom poisoning, is desired.

The present invention is directed to the discovery that the polypeptide toxins of Boletus spp. as well as other mushroom-derived peptides protect against mushroom poisoning in mammals, including humans, and against bacterial and fungal poisoning.

It is an object of the invention to provide a method for protecting mammals from the harmful effects of intoxication by a toxin derived from a mushroom.

It is another object of the invention to provide an anti-toxin for the treatment of poisoning by mushroom-derived toxins.

It is a further object of the invention to provide an anti-toxin for the treatment of mushroom poisoning in humans.

It is yet a further object of the invention to provide an anti-toxin for the treatment of mushroom poisoning in ruminants.

It is yet a further object of the invention to provide a method for protecting mammals, including humans, from mushroom poisoning.

It is yet a further object of the invention to provide a method for the treatment of mushroom poisoning in humans.

It is a further object of the invention to provide a method for the treatment of mushroom poisoning in ruminants.

It is yet a further object of the invention to provide a composition containing an anti-toxin and/or an anti-toxin-antibody for the treatment of mushroom poisoning in mammals.

It is yet a further object of the invention to provide a composition containing an anti-toxin and/or an anti-toxin-antibody for the treatment of mushroom poisoning in humans.

It is yet a further object of the invention to provide a composition containing an anti-toxin and/or an anti-toxin-antibody for the treatment of mushroom poisoning in ruminants.

The present invention relates to a method for protecting mammals from mushroom poisoning by administering to the mammal a composition comprising an anti-toxin and/or an anti-toxin-antibody. The present invention further relates to a composition of matter which comprises an anti-toxin, and/or an anti-toxin-antibody. The present invention also relates to a method for the treatment of mushroom poisoning in mammals by administering to the mammal a composition comprising an anti-toxin and/or an anti-toxin-antibody.

The anti-toxin may be the ATC (antitoxin-co-factor) toxin itself, a toxin derivative of the ATC, such as an adduct of the ATC and other toxin, or an adduct of the ATC and the antidote.

It is desirable to administer the composition to the mammal in an amount that will protect the mammal from mushroom poisoning. The amount of the composition to be administered may be a fixed amount, or the amount of composition to be administered may vary from the first exposure to the mammalian to the treatment of a subsequent exposure, where the later exposure is not necessarily to the same mushroom which caused the initial poisoning.

The anti-toxin may be from any edible mushroom known to be safe to humans and other animals. Preferably, the anti-toxin is from the mushroom Pisolithus tinctorius. However, it is also known that poisonous mushrooms may be contained in the diet of some animals.

An edible mushroom which is at least equally or more effective for the treatment of mushroom poisoning than the anti-toxin may be used in place of the anti-toxin. In particular, an adduct of the anti-toxin and another toxin, such as cholestin, cholestrin, roridin, roridin A, roridin B, roridin C, roridin D, roridin E, roridin F, roridin H, roridin K, phell


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